Indus valley civilization is considered to be one of the oldest civilizations of the world. Mother earth has preserved the traces and imprints of this rich civilization. History and Archeology have recorded the facts and statistics by bonding with the past and exploring mother earth and giving us a glimpse into the lifestyle, architecture, artistic skill, technology and intellect of the people of that era. Earlier Mohenjo Daro and Harappa were the two known centers that we learnt for years. Archaeological excavations have discovered Kalibangan, Lothal, Rupar, Ganeriwala, Rakhigarhi and Dholavira . We are going to learn about Dholavira in this article.
The ancient site of Dholavira came to light when it was identified by Dr. J.P. Joshi (former Director General of the Archeological survey of India) in the year 1967. The Khadir Bet of Bhachau taluka of Kutch district in the state of Gujarat, India hosts Dholavira. This ancient site depicting the remains of Harappan civilization also boasts of a local name “Kotada Timba”. Dholavira can be considered to be one among the five largest Harappan sites discovered till date. 14 field excavations were conducted during 1990-2005 under the guidance of R.S. Bisht by the Archeological Survey of India. The outcome of these excavations encompassed various predetermined estimations revealing 7 different stages depicting the cultural, economic and political evolution from inception to the end of the civilization.
Overview of the Infrastructural scenario of Dholavira:
The rectangular shape of the city depicts intellectual town planning skills. The city limits extended over 250 acres with an astonishing length of 771.1m and width of 616.85m. The 3 divisions of the town planning were similar lines to that of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa consisting of Citadel at the centre, middle town and the lower town. The engineering and technological skills of the people of Dholavira could be seen in the perfect roads, gateways, excellent defense mechanism and mesmerizing architectural masterpieces and Rain water storing and harvesting techniques. The existence of reservoirs, graveyards can help you gauge the indigenous advanced engineering techniques they practiced 5000 years ago.
Recently a stepwell has been found in Dholavira which is estimated to be thrice the size of the famous “Great bath” of the Mohenjo Daro. Experts suspect the existence of huge lakes, shorelines and reservoirs. Stamps with animal imprints, commendable painted potteries, jewelries, grinding stones are some of the findings in the Dholavira site.
This ancient Harappan site shall surely be a key to unlock the riddles of Harappa and Mohenjo Daro and finally Indus Valley civilization.