Indian Constitution is known to be the lengthiest written constitution in the world. Constitution of every country marks its independence and sovereignty. It is also referred to as “Living Constitution”due to its adaptive nature that also provides for amendments to be incorporated from time to time. It basically designs the set of rules for establishing the three organs of the government i.e. the legislature, the executive and the judiciary. It also bestows several rights and duties to the citizens of India thereby outlining the basic structure of governing the people of a country.
Preamble of the Constitution:
The Preamble is considered to be the heart of the Constitution. It helps us to understand the objectives enshrined in the Constitution. They are as follows:
- The Constitution renders India, the title of Sovereign entity. The Sovereignty is also coupled with the state of being Secular, Socialist and a Democratic*Republic*.
- Every single citizen of the country is entitled to justice of social, economic and political nature. This objective ensures that there shall be no discrimination of any kind towards any citizens of the country.
- This objective speaks of Liberty and secularism and renders the freedom of faith, expression, thought, belief and worship.
- Equality before law and of opportunity is yet another fascinating feature.
- Promotes fraternity among the people of India and ensures to secure the dignity of all citizens by promoting unity and integrity of the nation.
Let’s learn about the salient*salient*
➤ (n) (military) the part of the line of battle that projects closest to the enemy
➤ (s) having a quality that thrusts itself into attention
➤ (a) (of angles) pointing outward at an angle of less than 180 degrees
➤ (s) represented as leaping (rampant but leaning forward)
…by BeeDictionary.com features of our very own Indian Constitution.
- A written and comprehensive document: As learnt earlier, the Indian Constitution is a written document. The Constitution was framed in a span of approximately 2 years, 11 months and 18 days. Though the document was enforced on 26th January 1950, it was initially adopted on 26th November 1949. The Constitution had 395 articles, 22 parts and 8 schedules earlier. Numerous amendments were incorporated bringing it to 448 Articles, 25 parts, 12 schedules, 5 appendices and 98 amendments.
- An unique blend of rigidity and flexibility: Some provision of the constitution are extremely rigid and require a long tedious process to amend them. On the other hand a few provisions of the Constitution can be amended very easily by the Union parliament by passing a law.
The amendments can be done:
- Amendments to flexible provisions can be done if the Union parliament passes an Amendment Bill with the help of majority of the total members and* 2/3rd* of the majority of member who vote from both the houses.
In case of amendments of rigid provisions; initially, the Union parliament passes an Amendment Bill as stated above and then sends it for ratification by the State legislatures. If 50% of the State legislatures decide and approve the Bill, the amendments stands passed.
Federalism: The presence of two forms of Government, one at the National level and the other at the State level, signifies the existence of a Federal structure. The Union list, the State list and the Concurrent List render the powers to each government.
- A rare feature of Parliamentary democracy: The connection between the legislature and the executive is closely knit. The head of the State in India is the President even though the Prime minister; exercises most of the powers.
- The Judicial system is integrated: The Supreme Court is the Apex judicial institution in the country. The Apex judicial institution in every State is the High Court. The High Courts of various states and the lower courts are subordinates to the Supreme Court of India.
- Fundamental rights and duties: 6 Fundamental rights and 10 Fundamental duties are vested with the Indian citizens.
- The independent nature of the Judiciary: The judiciary*judiciary*
➤ (n) persons who administer justice
➤ (n) the system of law courts that administer justice and constitute the judicial branch of government
…by BeeDictionary.com can neither be influenced by the legislature nor by the executive.
- Single citizenship status: Every single citizen of India enjoys a single citizenship status.
- The Adult Franchise is universally applicable throughout India: Every individual who is mentally healthy and is 18 years old is allowed to cast vote. This voting right is given irrespective of caste, sex, social status, religion. This is termed as Universal Adult Franchise.
- The Emergency Provisions : The three kinds of emergencies in India are: a) National Emergency b) State Emergency and c) Financial Emergency. An Emergency is a situation when the Government cannot function appropriately due to unavoidable circumstances.
- The Directive Principles of the State Policy: These directions are given to every State to ensure the execution of social and economic justice towards all its people thereby creating a welfare state.
We boast of being Indians but at the same time we ought to know about our Constitution, its features, our fundamental rights and duties too.