The Roman Empire achieved its glory under its first emperor Augustus. Factually, Augustus was the first emperor though he never claimed his title. He completely stabilized the political, social and economic scenario of the Roman Empire that was undergoing a turmoil after the death of Gaius Julius Caesar. Augustus was the son of Julius Caesar’s niece. Julius Caesar had adopted Augustus as his son. Augustus laid the foundation of the Roman Empire that continued to rule for a span of 1500 years. Sextilius, the Roman month is named after Augustus as August.
August was not the birth month of Augustus as most of us believe. Augustus actually wished to be remembered for the month wherein he defeated the duo of Cleopatra VII and Marc Antony. Augustus has several names. He was born in 63 B.C and was named as Octavius; later he was adopted by Julius Caesar therefore he was named as Octavian in 44 B.C. It was only in 26 B.C. that he was conferred with the title of Augustus by the Roman Senate.
Octavius was merely 16 when he donned the toga*toga*
➤ (n) a one-piece cloak worn by men in ancient Rome
…by BeeDictionary.com (the sign of manhood in Rome). He was fearless in taking responsibilities as he was close to Caesar. He started helping Caesar in a few battles too. But when his shipwrecked, he was successful in reaching his great uncle by crossing the enemy territory and this left a huge impression in Caesar’s mind about Octavius. Later, Julius Caesar declared Octavius as his successor and heir in his will. 17 year old Octavius was in Apollonia at the time of Caesar’s death. Antony saw Octavius as an unexpected political rival as most of the countrymen preferred Octavius over Marc Antony. It was quite uneasy for both the men to maintain an alliance with each other and divide the empire between them.
Marc Antony continued his association with Cleopatra VII despite being married to Octavius’s sister Octavia minor. Later Antony married Cleopatra and that enraged Octavius. The battle for the throne continued and Augustus (Octavius) returned victorious while Marc Antony and Cleopatra VII committed suicide in the month of Sextilius. This is the reason the month Sextilius was named after Augustus as August.
During his reign, Augustus increased the size of the empire by leaps and bounds reaching Europe and Asia too. The road network and the postal services were redefined .Additional services like the police department and the fire department were founded.
Augustus was an able ruler who ruled for 40 years.